Sunday, 27 November 2016

How to free up space in Linux [Debian based]

Running out of storage? If you are running out of space in your Linux system, these simple steps will help you in freeing up some space in your Linux system. 

When you install an application, the packages are downloaded to your system. However, once the installation is complete, these downloaded packages remain in the system and take up space. So, to remove downloaded packages that are already installed and no longer needed, type in the following command in terminal : 

sudo apt-get clean

Some packages becomes obsolete or have a newer version in the repository, you can remove those packages stored in your cache by typing the following command : 

sudo apt-get autoclean 

To remove these un-necessary packages that have been left after the uninstalling an app, use the below command : 

sudo apt-get autoremove

The autoremove also deleted the dependencies that were installed during the installation of the application and are taking up space in your system.

To see the installed packages which are sorted by size : type the below command : 

dpkg-query -W --showformat='${Installed-Size} ${Package}\n' | sort -nr | less 

If you see any app that is taking a chunk of space in your Linux system which you do not use, uninstalling it can be good way of freeing up space in Linux. 

Remove files from /var/tmp

The /var/tmp directory stored temporary files which you do not need it. Check the size and delete the bigger ones.

Remove old kernels and header files. 

Check your current Kernel version by typing 

uname -r 

Now, check the old kernels and header files : 

dpkg -l linux-image-* linux-headers-* 

Now, remove the older kernel versions from your system : 

sudo apt-get remove linux-image-oldKernel linux-headers-oldHeaders 

Lastly, check for the Trash and clean it. Also, if you are movie junkie like me, chances are that half of your storage is filled up with movies. When I run out of space, I check the list and deletes those which I am not interested in watching again!

Is there any other way you know which can free up some space in a Linux system? Tell us in the comments. 

Wednesday, 23 November 2016

Fedora 25 released with GNOME 3.22 and Linux Kernel 4.8

Fedora 25
Fedora 25

Fedora Project has announced the launch of Fedora 25 which runs on Linux Kernel 4.8 and comes with GNOME 3.22. Fedora 25 comes with next-generation Wayland display server on the workstation edition replacing the legacy X11 system to provide a better and smoother graphical experience. It's released in 3 editions - Workstation, Serve and Atomic Host. Atomic Host is the replacement for Fedora Cloud. The latest update provides many bug fixes and enhancements including: 

  • Docker 1.12 container for packaging your application into a standardized unit for software development
  • Node.js 6.9.1 - latest version of server side javascript engine for building fast and scalable network applications 
  • Support for Rust - another stable and fast programming language 
  • Multiple Python versions 

The Fedora Project is an open source Linux Distribution which is community-driven and is sponsored by Red Hat Inc. Fedora 25 is a stable release and focused on truly open source software. By default, it comes with GNOME 3.22 desktop environment.

The Fedora Workstation introduces the Wayland display server replacing the legacy X11 to give the users a better graphical experience and capabilities for modern graphics hardware. It makes easier for the Windows and Mac OS X users to switch to Fedora by including Fedora Media Writer which helps user to find and download the current Fedora release and write it to removable disks and USB to test and use it. You can then install Fedora 25 in Virtual Box or along with Windows 10. 

If you are already running Fedora 24, it's easier for you to upgrade Fedora 24 to Fedora 25.

You can get Fedora 25 from the official site :

Atomic host has replaced Fedora Cloud in Fedora 25 which is a lightweight, immutable platform designed to run containerized applications. It uses the same package repositories as Fedora server and provides the latest versions of the Atomic. 

Fedora Server is a community sponsored server OS helping you to manage your system with Cockpit's powerful and modern interface, view and monitor system performance and status and deploy and manage container based services. It brings an enterprise-class scale-able database server powered with PostgreSQL.

You can read the complete release announcement on Fedora Website : 

Sunday, 13 November 2016

How to turn off Ubuntu automatic updates

Is their any way to turn off Ubuntu automatic updates? By default, Ubuntu automatic updates are turned ON and you need to disable it by yourself. Turning off Ubuntu automatic updates is usually required when you have limited bandwidth usage. I won't advise you to turn off the automatic updates since these updates includes several vulnerabilities patches and bug fixes and also includes various new features for a better Ubuntu experience. However, sometimes you can't manage a free / unlimited bandwidth so you need to turn it off. In this article, I will tell you how to turn off Ubuntu automatic updates.

Turn off Ubuntu automatic updates

You can disable automatic updates in Ubuntu though command line. Open Terminal and edit the file /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/10periodic and edit the line : APT::Periodic::Update-Package-Lists "1"; to APT::Periodic::Update-Package-Lists "0"; to turn off the automatic updates in Ubuntu. 

The second method is through GUI. Open Ubuntu Dash and search for Software & Updates. Under the Updates tab, you can find the different updates options. 

1. Automatically check for updates : This checks for any updates available for your Ubuntu system including the applications updates. Select any of the below options as per your preference. Select Never if you never want to check for automatic updates. 

every two days 
every two weeks

2. When there are security updates : This options will display / download / install security updates to your system. Unless you are on a metered connections, keeping it on download and install automatically should be your choice. To shut it down, select display immediately which just notifies you of the updates and do not download or install it without your permission. 

display immediately
download automatically
download and install automatically

3. When there are other updates : For other updates, you can check for immediate, weekly, bi-weekly notifications. 

display immediately
display weekly
display every two weeks

4. Notify me of a new Ubuntu Version : This options notifies you of a newer Ubuntu version. You can choose whether you want to be notified for any Ubuntu version that releases, or only a Long Term Support version or you do not wish to know and upgrade about any future versions of Ubuntu.

for any new version
for long term support versions 

These Keyboard Shortcuts for Ubuntu 16.10 will help you in a better Ubuntu Experience. Thanks for reading by. 

Saturday, 12 November 2016

How to format Pen Drive in Ubuntu

You can format Pen Drive in Ubuntu using the Disk Utility or through the Terminal. In Windows, the process is quite simpler - with a right click on the drive and choosing formatting option does the job. In Ubuntu, the process is very much same with the Disks Utility that comes pre-installed. The terminal way is easy too, involving a couple of commands, though you will need to be cautious not to format any other drive other than the pen drive in the process of formatting. I'm sure you don't want to loose something important (or a drive).

If you are looking for creating live USB, read here :  Creating live USB for Fedora / Ubuntu

How to format Pen Drive in Ubuntu using Disks Utility

Search from Disks Utility from Dash and open it. 

Once the Disks Application opens, in the left panel you can find all the disks (including Pen Drive) attached to your Ubuntu system. Click on the drive which you want to format. In the right most corner, click on the menu and click on format. 

You will find the two options for formatting - first one just erases the drive and is quicker. The second options erases the drive and rewrite it random data so that the deleted data is hard to recover. 

Click on format, and a warning message will appear confirming about the format. 

Click on format to format Pen Drive in Ubuntu. The same steps can be followed to format Pen Drive in Ubuntu, or a hard drive attached. Logical Partitioning can also be formatted using the same method. 

How to format Pen Drive in Ubuntu using Terminal 

You can format your pen drive or a hard drive using terminal too, instead of using Disk Utility. Open Terminal from the task bar, or press Ctrl + Alt + T. 

Type lsblk to list all the drives attached to your system. 

You can see the MOUNTPOINT of your Pen Drive. You can identify it through its size. You will need to unmount the drive before you can format it. Type in the following command in the terminal, 

sudo unmount /dev/sdb1

/dev/sdb1 is the filesystem name under NAME section.

Now run the following command to format your USB disk. 

sudo mkfs.vfat /dev/sdb1

That's it. You have successfully partitioned the USB drive. Let us know in the comments, if you are facing any problem in formatting pen drive in Ubuntu. 

You can read our latest post :  How to install Linux Mint 18 KDE and these Keyboard Shortcuts for Ubuntu 16.10 will assist you a lot while using Ubuntu. If you have not installed / used Ubuntu, this is for you : Installing Ubuntu 16.10 in Virtual-Box.

Sunday, 6 November 2016

How to install Linux Mint 18 KDE in Virtual Box

We had earlier reported about the Linux Mint 18 KDE release and if you want to try it in a virtual box, we are here with step by step guide of how to install Linux Mint 18 KDE in Virtual Box. 

Downloading Linux Mint 18 

Grab a copy of Mint 18 from it's official site.

Next step includes setting up Virtual Box for any Linux system. You can read here the complete guide. Setting up Virtual Machine for Linux.

Once you are done with it, Choose Virtual Optical Drive and map it to the ISO you have downloaded. Now, start the machine for the first time and you will end up with the Linux Desktop running. This is not yet installed and you are running through the ISO file just like you run any Linux Distro using a pen drive. You will need to install it to the hard disk (virtual) which you have created. To install Linux Mint permanently, click on the KDE Menu in the Down-left corner and click on Install this system permanently to your hard disk.  

Once you click on it, the next few steps are very simple. You have to go through the regular installation steps where you will select Language, Decide whether to install third party software for graphics and Wi-Fi hardware, Flash, MP3 and other media, Installation type, Timezone, Keyboard, and Login Options. Choose your preferences and click on continue each time. This will end up the installation screen and it will take some time before the complete installation of Linux Mint 18 KDE in Virtual Box. We will see all the steps one by one with screenshots.

1. Select the Language you are most comfortable with. 

Preparing to install Linux Mint -- Choose whether you want to install third party softwares that are proprietary but needed to run your system smoothly. These includes some drivers, flash, mp3 and other media codecs. I will suggest you to check this option before proceeding further so that you do not need to install these after the complete installation. It will save you some pain. 

Installation type --Don't have much idea about it, but I stick to Guided - use entire disk since I have created a separate disk for it in my Virtual Box. 

Select your timezone. 

Keyboard layout -- leave it as it is. I had never changed it though worked on so many installations for different Linux Distributions. 

This is an important step. Here, you will choose the root user and assign a password to it. 

Once all these steps are done, it will take a while before you are done with the installation of Linux Mint KDE edition. Once done, you are shown the login screen. Type in the password you had chosen while setting up. 

Restart your system, as you are still running a live session. You have successfully installed Linux Mint in Virtual Box. 

The first thing you will notice once you reboot your Virtual Machine is the beauty of Linux Mint. It is a beautiful and yes, powerful Linux distribution and after working with it for a while, I noticed it is much faster than Ubuntu. The next few days will be all Mint for me: Linux Mint : from freedom came elegance.

Let us know in the comments if you face any difficulty while installing Linux Mint KDE 18 in Virtual Box. 

Open Source Photoshop alternatives for Linux - GIMP

There are ways by which you can run Adobe Photoshop in Linux Ubuntu like running Photoshop through WINE or setting up a virtual box inside your Linux system and running Windows in it to run Adobe Photoshop. But both of have some issues. With WINE, the setting up of Photoshop is a complex process and some features might not work. With setting up of virtual box, you will eventually need Windows License to install and run Adobe Photoshop.

GIMP logo
GIMP logo

So what's the way forward? Choose an open source alternative to Adobe Photoshop. Though Photoshop is a highly used and polished software and it's impossible to have a software of that excellence, but with the below alternatives you can very much perform all tasks that you can in Photoshop. Let's see the best Open Source Photoshop alternatives for Ubuntu / Linux : GIMP.


GIMP is an acronym for GNU Image Manipulation Program. It's a cross platform image editor for Linux / Windows / OS X, is free and open source and does almost all the things you need. There are various third party customization options and plugins developed for GIMP that will help you in the process. GIMP provides high quality photo manipulation - from retouching to restoring to creative composites. Some of the GIMP features include Customizable interface, photo enhancements, digital retouching, various hardware support and supports most of the file formats. With large numbers of professional-level editing tools and filters, you can edit, enhance, retouch photos, create drawings etc.

You can download the current Stable version from GIMP website :

GIMP is available in various languages and provides the best alternative for Adobe Photoshop for a Linux environment (and even to Windows / OS X if you do not wish to spend $$$).

Installing GIMP in Ubuntu

You can install GIMP in Ubuntu through the Ubuntu Software Center. Open Software Center and search for GIMP Image Editor. Click on install and it will install GIMP in your Ubuntu System. 

Installing through command line:

Open Terminal (Ctrl + Alt + T) and type the following command : 

sudo apt-get install gimp

This will install the current stable GIMP in your system. You can launch it from the Graphics filter in Application Lens in the Dash. Alternatively, you can type gimp in terminal to launch the application.

I'm clearly not a good photo editor :D 

Installing GIMP in Linux Mint 

Most probably, GIMP is already installed in your Linux Mint. If it isn't, open the software manager and search for GIMP and you can install it from there. 

You can install it through the terminal too by typing

sudo apt-get install gimp

Let us know in the comments if GIMP is a perfect alternative for Photoshop for you.

Thursday, 3 November 2016

Keyboard Shortcuts for Ubuntu 16.10 Yakkety Yak

Keyboard Shortcuts for Ubuntu 16.10 Yakkety Yak : Once you Install Ubuntu 16.10 Yakkety Yak, you will be greeted with some of the Keyboard Shortcuts that will make your day-to-day work easier in a Linux environment. You can find the screenshot below of the popular Keyboard Shortcuts in Ubuntu 16.10.

Keyboard Shortcuts for Ubuntu 16.10 Yakkety Yak


Super (Hold) : Opens the launcher, displays shortcuts
Alt + F1 : Opens launcher keyboard navigation mode
Super + Tab : Switches application via the launcher
Super + 1 to 9 : Same as clicking on a Launcher icon
Super + Shift + 1 to 9 : Open a new window in the app
Super + T : Open the trash

HUD & Menu Bar

Alt (Tap) : Open the HUD
Alt (Hold) : Reveals the application menu
Cursor Left of Right : Moves focus between indicators
Print : Take a screenshot
Alt + Print : Take a screenshot of the current window


Alt + Tab : Switches between applications
Alt + ` : Switches windows of current applications
Cursor Left or Right : Move the focus
Cursor Up or Down : Enter / Exit from spread mode or Select Windows
Alt + Q : Closes the selected application / window


Super (Tap) : Opens the Dash home
Super + A : Opens the Dash App Lens
Super + F : Opens the Dash Files Lens
Super + M : Opens the Dash Music Lens
Super + C : Opens the Dash Photo Lens
Super + V : Opens the Dash Video Lens
Ctrl + Tab : Switches between Lenses
Arrow Key : Moves the focus
Enter : Opens the currently focused item


Super + W : Spreads all windows
Ctrl + Super + W : Spreads all windows of the focused application
Ctrl + Super + D : Minimises all windows
Ctrl + Super + Up : Mazimises the current window
Ctrl + Super + Down : Restores or minimises the current window
Ctrl + Super + Left or Right : Semi-maximise the current window
Alt + F4 : Close the current window
Alt + Space : Opens the window accessibility menu
Ctrl + Alt + Num (Keypad) : Places the window in the corresponding position
Alt + Left Mouse Drag : Moves the window
Alt + Middle Mouse Drag : Resizes the window

These are some of the Keyboard shortcuts for Ubuntu 16.10 Yakkety Yak that will make your Ubuntu experience much better. Let us know if you want to add some Keyboard shortcuts in the list in the comments and I will update the article. 

Wednesday, 2 November 2016

Installing Ubuntu 16.10 in Virtual Box

Before you install Ubuntu 16.10 in Virtual Box, you will need to Set up Virtual Machine for a Linux Distribution. Once done, head over to Ubuntu Download page and download the Ubuntu 16.10 ISO file. Once done, boot into the Virtual Machine using the ISO file as described in the above link. 

Once boot is done, you will be asked to either Try Ubuntu or Install Ubuntu. Since you are installing the latest release from Canonical, select Install Ubuntu to install in a virtual box.

The next window will be for Preparing to install Ubuntu. Select the first check box if you want to download the updates that have been rolled out after the 16.10 launch. It's always better to stay updated and I would recommend to go with it. However, you can update your Linux system anytime later too. So, if you are on a metered connection and need to wait for Wi-Fi, skip this part. The second option is for installing third party software which includes Graphics Drivers, Flash, MP3 Codecs and other media. I would recommend you to select this in any case. Ubuntu warns you about some of these third party software being proprietary. Click Continue once you are done with your selection.

The next dialogue box is for Installation Type. Since you are installing Ubuntu 16.04 in a Virtual Box, select Erase disk and install Ubuntu and proceed further. You can select the option to Encrypt the new Ubuntu installation directory to keep your data safe. Also, you can Logical Volume Management for easier partition later. 

In the next window, select your location. 

Select the keyboard layout in the next window.

In the next window, the installation will ask you to fill in the login credentials along with your Computer's name. You can choose to login automatically - do not go for it if you have a public system to keep your data safe.

Once done, click on Continue and the installation will begin. it will take some time depending upon the choices you have made to install updates / third party software. 

Once the installation complete, restart your system and login. That's it. 

Congratulations! You have successfully installed Ubuntu 16.10 in Virtual Box. Enjoy the Linux experience. If you are facing any difficulty in installing, let us know in the comments. Ubuntu 16.10 is not an LTS supported release and will be supported till July 2017 - 9 months from the release. Also, there are various options to try and test. Also, Ubuntu 16.10 will run better in Virtual Box.