Monday, 30 May 2016

How to install Ubuntu 16.04 LTS in Virtual Box [Oracle VM Virtual Box]

Ubuntu 16.04 LTS has been released from over a month and if you have still not tried it, it's time for you to install Ubuntu 16.04 LTS. Code named Xenial Xerus, the Ubuntu 16.04 comes with a long term support for 5 years and various improvements. I was playing with the latest Ubuntu release and before I went on to install it along with my Windows 10, I tried installing it in Oracle VM virtual box. This tutorial covers step by step guide to install Ubuntu 16.04 LTS in virtual box.

Ubuntu 16.04 launcher
Ubuntu 16.04 launcher

Before installing Ubuntu 16.04 LTS latest release, you will need to download Ubuntu ISO from it's website. You can find the Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus launched [download links] or you can directly navigate to Ubuntu Download Page.

So, I assume you have downloaded the latest Ubuntu ISO and all set it to install Ubuntu 16.04 in virtual box. I have downloaded the 64-bit ISO for myself and going to set it up.

The first step is to open Virtual Box and click on new option.

You will be presented with a screen to name the new virtual machine you are creating and to chose the type of distribution you are installing.

I named it Ubuntu1604 and the type and version are self determined by the virtual box.

The next step is to choose the memory size which you want to assign to your new Ubuntu box. I have chose 2 GB RAM and it works pretty fine. So a 2 GB is recommended for you to install Ubuntu 16.04 LTS. Now, clicking on next takes you to create hard disk. Choose "Create a virtual disk now" and click on create. In the next step choose the size of the hard disk you want to allocate to your Ubuntu partition.

The next step is to choose hard disk type. It will be by default VDI - VirtualBox Disk image and I left it to the default option. In the next screen, I have chosen Dynamically allocated hard disk.

Click on next and done. You are almost ready with the pre-steps of installing Ubuntu 16.04. The next step is to map the ISO image to this create machine.

In the virtual box left panel, you can see the Ubuntu1604 option. Right click on it, and select Settings.

In the left panel, go to Storage, and under Controller : IDE, click on the icon that's been highlighted in the below image and choose Add optical drive, navigate to the ISO path, and select it.

Ok, so till now you are done with the VM Ware thing, and the next step is to installing Ubuntu 16.04. Open the VM Ware and start the machine. Ubuntu will load up and come up with this screen:

Installing Ubuntu 16.04

You can try Ubuntu without installing it by clicking it on Try Ubuntu, but since we are getting into the details of installing Ubuntu 16.04, click on the Install Ubuntu option. Select the preferred language from the left panel. I have chosen English. 

Once you click on Continue, you will have to choose if you want to download the updated while installing Ubuntu. Also, if you want to install third party software for graphics and wifi-hardware, flash, MP3 and other media, check the box. 

It is advisable to check both the options so that you receive the updates and do not have to manually search and download the third party software/driver once you are finished with the installations. 

Installing Ubuntu 16.04

The next step will ask if you want to Erase disk and install Ubuntu, whether you want to encrypt the new installation or want to customize everything yourself. Select the "Erase disk and install Ubuntu".

Installing Ubuntu 16.04

The next step will warn for writing the changes to disks and the timezone. Another dialogue box will ask you to select your keyboard layout, I had chosen English > English (US) in the keyboard layout section. Once you are done with all these, the last step is where the installer will ask for your details. Your name, your PC name, username with which you will login and the password for it. It is to note that this password will be your root password and hence you must keep it difficult to guess and mustn't forget it. You can choose to login automatically or Require my password to log in as your wish. 

Choose username/password in Ubuntu

Once done, click on Continue and the installer will Install Ubuntu 16.04 in the VM Ware. The installation will take some time depending upon your internet speed and the time it takes to download and update the things. Once done, you are all good to start and login to your Ubuntu system.

Here's the login screen : 

Ubuntu login screen
Ubuntu login screen

Enter the root password to login to your Linux box. Once all good, you will see the homescreen/desktop of Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus. Congrats.!! 

Ubuntu home screen
Ubuntu home screen

Let me know in the comments if you face any problem while installing Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus in Virtual box. Once you have downloaded and installed, these keyboard shortcuts for Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus will ease out your experience with Linux. 

Tuesday, 10 May 2016

Keyboard Shortcuts for Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus

With the release of Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus, you must be excited. So, if you have upgraded to Ubuntu 16.04 already, here's the most common and useful
keyboard shortcuts for Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus that will make your experience with Ubuntu much better.

Ubuntu 16.04 Logo
Ubuntu 16.04 Logo

Around the desktop 

Alt + F4  Closes the current window
Alt + F2  Open command window for quickly running commands 
Alt + Tab  Switch between windows. Using "Shift" will do it in reverse order 
Alt + `  ` is just above the Tab. Its for switching between windows from the same application. 
Super + S  Activate the workplace switcher
Super + W  Show all windows from current workspace 
Ctrl + Alt + Arrow Keys  Switch between workspaces 
Ctrl + Alt + Shift + Arrow Keys  Move the current window to a different workspace 
Ctrl + Alt + Delete   Log Out
Ctrl + Super + D  Switch to desktop. Hide all other Windows. Press again to restore things. 
Ctrl + Alt + L   Lock the screen

Editing shortcuts 

Ctrl + A Select all text/items
Ctrl + X Cut selected text and place it in clipboard
Ctrl + C Copy selected text
Ctrl + V Paste the content of clipboard
Ctrl + Z Undo.

Screenshot shortcuts

Print Screen  Take a screenshot 
Alt + Print Screen  Take a screenshot of Window
Shift + Print Screen  Take a screenshot of an area of screen. The pointer changes to crosshair to drag and select an area. 

Use of superkey

Superkey is the key just beside the left alt key. It usually have a Windows Logo on it, or ⌘ key on Apple keyboard.

Pressing the Super Key displays Ubuntu Dash. Pressing and holding the superkey will show an overlay displaying many of Unity's keyboard shortcuts until you release it. 

If you want to master keyboard navigation, particularly helpful for those who want to use keybaord as much as possible or when cannot use Mouse due to any reasons, these Ubuntu 16.04 keyboard shortcuts will help you. 

Tab and Ctrl + Tab  Move keyboard focus between different controls. Ctrl + Tab moves between group of controls, such as from a sidebar to main content. 

Arrow Keys  Move selection between items in a single control.

Ctrl + Arrow Keys  In a list or icon view, move the keyword focus to another item without changing which item is selected. 

Shift + Arrow keys  In a list or icon view, select all items from the currently selected item to the newly focused item. 

Space  Activate a focused item such as a button, check box, or list item.

Ctrl + Space  In a list or icon view, select or deselect the focused item without diselecting other items. 

Alt  Hold down the Alt key to reveal the underlined letters or menu items, buttons or other controls. Press Alt + the underlined letter to activate a control, same as a clicking on it. 

Esc  Exit a menu, popup, switcher, or dialogue window.

F10  Open the first menu on the menu bar of a window, use the arrow keys to navigate the menus. 

Shift + F10  Pop up the context menu for the current selection, same as right click.

Ctrl + F10  In a file manager, functions same as Shift + F10.

Ctrl + PageUp/PageDown  In a tabbed interface, switch to the tab to the left or right. 

Navigation on the desktop

Alt + Tab  Switch between the windows. Hold down shift for reverse order. 

Alt + `  Switch between windows from the same application.

Ctrl + Alt + Arrow Keys  Switch between workspaces

Window Navigation Shortcuts

Alt + F4  Close the current window

Ctrl + Super + ↓  Restore a maximized window to its original size

Alt + F7  Move the current window. Press and use the arrow keys to move. Press Enter to finish, Escape to exit.

Alt + F8  Resize the current window. Works same as above. 

Ctrl + Super + ↑  Maximize a window

Ctrl + Super + ←  Maximize a window vertically along the left side of the screen.

Ctrl + Super + →  Maximize a window vertically along the right side of the screen. 

Alt + Space  Pop up the window menu, same as right click on the titlebar. 

We will be publishing more keyboards shortcuts for Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus in next articles. Do you know some more which you use? Tell us in the comments and I will add it.